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Brief Information About Turkey

Geography,Climate, Population,Turkish Cuisine, Recipes, The Cabinet, Chronological List of Turkish Presidents & Turkish Governments,



Turkey is located on two continents, Europe and Asia. The Asian side is called Anatolia and the European side is called Eastern Thrace. Bosphorus, Marmara Sea and the Dardanelles separate Anatolia and the Eastern Thrace. Neighbouring countries are Bulgaria and Greece in the west, Iraq and Syria in the south and Azerbaijan, Georgia and Iran in the east. Area of Turkey is 814.578 square kilometres. 97 per cent of the area is located on the Asian side. Turkey is surrounded by four seas: Black Sea in the north, Marmara Sea in the northwest, Aegean Sea in the west and the Mediterranean in the south. The country has 8333 kilometres of coastline. The country is mountainous. Pontic Mountains follow the Black Sea and Taurus Mountains follow the Mediterranean in the south. Between them there is the Central Anatolian highland. Mount Ararat in the east is 5137 meters high from the sea level. The most well known rivers, Euphrates and Tigris, start from Central Anatolia and run to the Gulf of Persia. The longest river Kizilirmak (1355 km) starts from Central Anatolia and runs to the Black Sea. The country has about 200 lakes, which cover 9200 sq. kilometres. The biggest lakes, Van Gölü (Van Lake) and Tuz Gölü (Salt Lake) have salty water.

Summers are hot and dry and winters are mild in the Mediterranean, Aegean and the Marmara regions. Most of the rain falls during November-February. In midsummer the temperature rises up to 30 C, but the sea breeze cools the air. Coasts are ideal for tourists who love sun and warm sea. Most of the fruit, vegetables, cotton, grain and tobacco are grown on the coast. Bananas grow only on the Mediterranean coast. On the Black Sea the climate is cooler and rainier. People grow maize, rice, barley, potatoes, sugar roots, onions and hemp. Rains all year round and mild climate are favourable also for tea plantations and hazelnuts. In the highlands, summers are hot and winters are cold and snowy. Mountains also might have snow during the summer months. Agriculture and cattle breeding are important. People grow wheat, beans, potatoes, sugar roots and also grapes in certain places. Eastern Anatolia is 2000 meters from the sea level in average. Summers are cool and winters are very cold and snowy. Agriculture and cattle breeding are the ways of earning a living even though only one tenth of the soil is fertile. People grow wheat and barley, cotton, tobacco and sugar roots. People can grow fruit in sheltered valleys. Apricots from Malatya are famous and considered to be the best in Turkey. Climate in the southeastern Turkey is under the influence of continental climate of the Central Anatolia and the Mediterranean climate. Long summers are hot and winters are short and rainy. People grow grains and vegetables. South Eastern Anatolia project (GAP) has changed the climate more favourable for agriculture. Dry seasons have become shorter and rainfalls have increased.

The population of Turkey is around 65 million. The majority of the population is very young and growth is fast. 30 per cent of the population is under 15 years. 40 per cent of the population live in the countryside, although there is a move move to towns in great numbers. The population density is highest on the tourist, business and industrial areas of the Aegean, Marmara and the Mediterranean regions and lowest in the rural areas of the southeast Turkey. In Istanbul region there are over 10 million inhabitants, in Ankara around 3.7 million, in Izmir 3.1 million and in Antalya 1.5 million inhabitants.








Muvakkat İcra Encümeni

(25 April 1920-3 May 1920)

I. İcra Vekilleri Heyeti

(3 May 1920-24 January 1921)

II. İcra Vekilleri Heyeti

(24 January 1921-19 May 1921)

III. İcra Vekilleri Heyeti

(19 May 1921-9 July 1922)

IV. İcra Vekilleri Heyeti

(12 July 1922-4 August 1923)

V. İcra Vekilleri Heyeti

(14 August 1923-27 October 1923)


Governments in Republic of Turkey

I.İnönü Government

(30 October 1923-6 March 1924)

II. İnönü Government

(6 March 1924-22 November 1924)

Okyar Government

(22 November 1924-3 March 1925)

III. İnönü Government

(3 March 1925-1 November 1927)

IV. İnönü Government

(1 November 1927-27 September 1930)

V. İnönü Government

(27 September 1930-4 May 1931)

VI. İnönü Government

(4 May 1931-1 March 1935)

VII. İnönü Government

(1 March 1935-1 November 1937)

I. Bayar Government

(1 November 1937-11 November 1938)

II. Bayar Government

(11 November 1938-25 January 1939)

I. Saydam Government

(25 January 1939-3 April 1939)

II. Saydam Government

(3 April 1939-9 July 1942)

I. Saraçoğlu Government

(9 July 1942-9 March 1943)

II. Saraçoğlu Government

(9 March 1943-7 August 1946)

Peker Government

(7 August 1946-10 September 1947)

I. Saka Government

(10 September 1947-10 June 1948)

II. Saka Government

(10 June 1948-16 January 1949)

Günaltay Government

(16 January 1949-22 May 1950)

II. Menderes Government

(22 May 1950-9 March 1951)

II. Menderes Government

(9 March 1951-17 May 1954)

III. Menderes Government

(17 May 1954-9 December 1955)

IV. Menderes Government

(9 December 1955-25 November 1957)

V. Menderes Government

(25 November 1957-27 May 1960)

I. Gürsel Government

(30 May 1960-5 January 1961)

II. Gürsel Government

(5 January 1961-20 November 1961)

VIII. İnönü Government

(20 November 1961-25 June 1962)

IX.İnönü Government

(25 June 1962-25 December 1963)

X. İnönü Government

(25 December 1963-20 February 1965)

Ürgüplü Government

(20 February 1965-27 October 1965)

I. Demirel Government

(27 October 1965-3 November 1969)

II. Demirel Government

(3 November 1969-6 March 1970)

III. Demirel Government

(6 March 1970-26 March 1971)

I. Erim Government

(26 March 1971-11 December 1971)

II. Erim Government

(11 December 1971-22 May 1972)

Melen Government

(22 May 1972-15 April 1973)

Talu Government

(15 April 1973-26 January 1974)

I. Ecevit Government

(26 January 1974-17 November 1974)

Irmak Government

(17 November 1974-31 March 1975)

IV. Demirel Government

(31 March 1975-21 June 1977)

II. Ecevit Government

(21 June 1977-21 July 1977)

V. Demirel Government

(21 July 1977-5 January 1978)

III. Ecevit Government

(5 January 1978-12 November 1979)

VI. Demirel Government

(12 November 1979-12 September 1980)

Ulusu Government

(20 September 1980-13 December 1983)

I. Özal Government

(13 December 1983-21 December 1987)

II. Özal Government

(21 December 1987-9 November 1989)

Akbulut Government

(9 November 1989-23 June 1991)

Yılmaz Government

(23 June 1991-20 November 1991)

VII. Demirel Government

(20 November 1991-25 June 1993)

Çiller Government

(25 June 1993-15 October 1995)

Çiller Government

(15 October 1995-5 November 1995)

Çiller Government

(5 November 1995-12 March 1996)

Yılmaz Government

(12 March 1996-08 July 1996)

Erbakan Government

(08 July 1996 - 30 June 1997)

Yılmaz Government

(30 June 1997 -11 January 1999)

Ecevit Government

(11 January 1999-28 May 1999)

Ecevit Government

(28 May 1999-18 Nov 2002)

Gül Government

(18 Nov 2002-11 Mar 2003)

Erdoğan Government

(14 Mar 2003 - ....)

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